Ever since Galileo Galilei first observed Jupiter closely in 1610 using a telescope of his own design, scientists and astronomers have been immensely fascinated by the Jovian planet. And the fascination continues to this day.

The June spacecraft has been sending stunning images and other surprising data from Jupiter, the largest planet in our solar system. And some of its finding have turned the scientific community’s previous opinions about Jupiter on its ear.

The Juno spacecraft has found, for example, that Jupiter’s interior composition and structure seems to be quite different, and its winds even more active, than originally thought.

Now, giant cyclones at the planet’s poles have been seen in greater detail than ever before. They are not only stunning, but unique from atmospheric storms of any other planet in our solar system, even other gas and ice giants.

Also, other new data from Juno builds on previous findings, including showing that the planet’s strong winds penetrate deep into the atmosphere and last longer than any similar ones on our planet.

In a statement from NASA, Scott Bolton, principal investigator of Juno from the Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, said:

These astonishing science results are yet another example of Jupiter’s curve balls, and a testimony to the value of exploring the unknown from a new perspective with next-generation instruments. Juno’s unique orbit and evolutionary high-precision radio science and infrared technologies enabled these paradigm-shifting discoveries.

Juno is only about one-third the way through its primary mission, and already we are seeing the beginnings of a new Jupiter.

Jupiter’s atmospheric marvels are not limited to its equatorial regions, however; Juno has provided unprecedented views of the planet’s poles, where massive cyclones churn with unearthly ferocity. Infrared images created from data taken by the Jovian Infrared Auroral Mapper (JIRAM) instrument look almost surreal, like cosmic artwork.

The clusters of cyclones around the poles look kind of like a space pizza – a dazzling, yet unearthly sight. Alberto Adriani, Juno co-investigator from the Institute for Space Astrophysics and Planetology, Rome, and lead author of one of the new papers, said:

Prior to Juno we did not know what the weather was like near Jupiter’s poles. Now, we have been able to observe the polar weather up-close every two months.

Each one of the northern cyclones is almost as wide as the distance between Naples, Italy, and New York City – and the southern ones are even larger than that. They have very violent winds, reaching, in some cases, speeds as great as 220 mph (350 kph). Finally, and perhaps most remarkably, they are very close together and enduring.

There is nothing else like it that we know of in the solar system.

For more, see… http://disq.us/p/1r4iywb

Jupiter’s Powerful Auroras ‘Defy Earthly Laws of Physics’

The planet’s polar auroras seem to behave different from would be expected, based on what is known about auroras on Earth.

“Almost nothing is as we anticipated,” Juno’s principal investigator Scott Bolton had previously told WIRED. “But it’s exciting that Jupiter is so different than we assumed.”

“The data’s telling us our ideas are all wrong,” says Randy Gladstone, lead investigator of Juno’s ultraviolet spectrograph. “But that’s fun.”

Jupiter is a complex planet, and thanks to Juno, we now know it is even more complex than first thought. As reported earlier in AmericaSpace, it is now a “whole new world.” The planet’s auroras are one good example. Scientists had expected them to be about 10 – 30 times stronger than those on Earth, but according to Juno, they are a hundred times more powerful. That’s a fascinating problem, since according to what we know about them on Earth, they shouldn’t be; they are essentially “defying Earthly laws of physics.”

“Basically, the aurora is a factor of 10 brighter than it should be based on Earth-like physics,” Mauk said.

Juno also recently took the closest-ever images of Jupiter’s Great Red Spot, a gigantic long-lived storm in the atmosphere.

“Jupiter’s mysterious Great Red Spot is probably the best-known feature of Jupiter,”  said Scott Bolton, principal investigator of Juno from the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio. “This monumental storm has raged on the Solar System’s biggest planet for centuries. Now, Juno and her cloud-penetrating science instruments will dive in to see how deep the roots of this storm go, and help us understand how this giant storm works and what makes it so special.”

For more, see… https://goo.gl/CVYqNZ

Jupiter – The Fascinating Planet

Ever since Galileo Galilei first observed Jupiter closely in 1610 using a telescope of his own design, scientists and astronomers have been immensely fascinated by the Jovian planet. Not only is it the Solar System’s largest planet, but there are still things about this world – despite centuries of research and numerous exploration missions – that continue to mystify even our greatest minds.

One of the main reasons for this is because Jupiter is so starkly different from what we Earth-dwellers consider to be normal. Between its incredible size, mass, composition, the mysteries of its magnetic and gravitational fields, and its impressive system of moons, its existence has shown us just how diverse planets can truly be.

Size, Mass and Density:

Earth’s has a mean radius of 6,371 km (3,958.8 mi), and a mass of 5.97 × 1024 kg. Jupiter has a mean radius of 69,911 ± 6 km (43441 mi) and a mass of 1.8986×1027 kg. In short, Jupiter is almost 11 times the size of Earth, and about 318 times as massive. However, Earth’s density is significantly higher, since it is a terrestrial planet – 5.514 g/cm3 compared to 1.326 g/cm³.

Because of this, Jupiter’s “surface” gravity is significantly higher than Earth normal – i.e. 9.8 m/s² or 1 g. While, as a gas giant, Jupiter has no surface per se, astronomers believe that within Jupiter’s atmosphere where the atmospheric pressure is equal to 1 bar (which is equal to Earth’s at sea level), Jupiter experiences a gravitational force of 24.79 m/s2 (which is the equivalent of 2.528 g).




Ready for some more Sunday PM “popular science?”


How Will Juno Spacecraft Survive Devastating Radiation When It Starts Orbiting the Deadly Planet in July?


Did you know that Jupiter is the size of 1,300 Earths?

Mighty Jupiter is incomprehensibly large. More massive than all the other planets and asteroids in the solar system combined, Jupiter is the size of 1,300 Earths. As if such a big guy needed any additional protection, Jupiter is also swathed in radiation that’s many thousands of times harsher than around Earth.
“Jupiter is by far the most severe radiation environment of any body in the solar system, other than the Sun,” says Kevin Rudolph, an engineer at Lockheed Martin who helped design and build the Juno spacecraft.
The Juno spacecraft will arrive at Jupiter on July 4 of this year and will orbit it for two years. How will Juno survive such blistering radiation?
“We’re basically an armored tank,” says Juno principle investigator Scott Bolton. “This mission is a first for NASA in many ways. It’s probably one of the biggest challenges they’ve attempted, to get this close to Jupiter.”
Here’s why…

Where Does The Radiation Come From?

Jupiter’s large metal core gives it a magnetic field 20,000 times larger than Earth’s. And just like Earth’s magnetic field, the Jovian magnetosphere traps the electrically charged particles that stream out from the sun.
The particles in the magnetosphere build up over time, and many become more dangerous. As the planet spins, the Jovian magnetic field whips around, too, accelerating all those charged protons and electrons that got caught in the magnetic net. They also take on more energy as they crash into other.
“You end up with essentially BBs,” says Rudolph. But they’re sub-atomic, so they can pass through a spacecraft’s solid hull and spell trouble for a spacecraft’s electronics.
“Those BB-like particles will fly into an electronic circuit and knock the atoms off the chip, or knock the electrons in the circuitry out of position. If they knock enough out, it can destroy the circuit.”
For more, see… How The Juno Spacecraft Will Survive Jupiter’s Devastating Radiation http://pops.ci/TRyyjJ





NASA has released a spectacular image of the majestic Crab Nebula in the constellation of Taurus. The image is a composite of a series captured by the agency’s x-ray, optical and infrared satellites.

First recorded by astronomers in 1054 AD, the Crab Nebula was formed when a star exhausted its supply of nuclear fuel and collapsed. Now, it is powered by a quickly spinning neutron star, known as a pulsar. NASA’s image shows waves of matter emanating from both the north and south poles of the pulsar, which is shaped like a phosphorescent wizard’s hat.

NASA says that this effect is caused by the pulsar’s rapid rotation and a powerful magnetic field, which create jets of matter and antimatter. The different colors in the image represent the stills captured by NASA’s different satellites throughout the years. The blue and white colors represent pictures taken from the Chandra Telescope, while the purple color is from the Hubble Space Telescope and the pink color is from the Spitzer Space Telescope.

The Chandra Observatory, which will celebrate the 20th anniversary of its launch next year, is an X-ray satellite. While Hubble is an optical satellite, which takes simple pictures of objects throughout the cosmos, Chandra captures gases and other materials with such a small wavelength that they tend to pass through most matter. Meanwhile, an infrared telescope, such as the Spitzer, identifies celestial bodies by scanning for signs of radiation.

Here’s a short video clip which provides additional explanations.

For mores, see… https://on.rt.com/91b7


Wonders of Nature

On Friday, Elizabeth and I drove up to Carefree and Cave Creek area. We were surprised to find there several art and wine festivals taking place at different venues at the same time.

This photo was taken at Carefree near the world-famous Sun Dial. It’s probably the biggest lizard I have ever seen. Judging by the coloring, I would guess it is a Gila Monster. They are quite common in the Arizona desert.


Gila monster is a species of venomous lizard native to the southwestern US (Arizona) and northwestern Mexican state of Sonora. A heavy, typically slow-moving lizard, up to two feet​ long, the Gila monster is the only venomous lizard native to the United States

​One of the legends about the Gila Monster is that once it bites, its jaw locks in and it does not let go of its victim even when killed. Here’s a story from the old western pioneer days in Arizona.

On May 8, 1890, southeast of TucsonArizona Territory, Empire Ranch owner Walter Vail captured and thought he had killed a Gila monster. He tied it to his saddle but it bit the middle finger of his right hand and wouldn’t let go.

A ranch hand pried open the lizard’s mouth with a pocketknife, cut open his finger to stimulate bleeding, and then tied saddle strings around his finger and wrist.

They summoned Dr. John C. Handy of Tucson, who took Vail back to Tucson for treatment, but Vail experienced swollen and bleeding glands in his throat for sometime afterward.

Well, at least he supposedly survived the bite. Some others weren’t so lucky. Here’s another colorful anecdote about Gila Monsters:

The Tombstone Epitaph of Tombstone, Arizona, wrote about a Gila monster that a local person caught on May 14, 1881:

This is a monster, and no baby at that, it being probably the largest specimen ever captured in Arizona. It is 27 inches long and weighs 35 lb. It was caught by H. C. Hiatt on the road between Tombstone and Grand Central Mill and was purchased by Messrs. Ed Baker and Charles Eastman, who now have it on exhibition at Kelley’s Wine House, next door above Grand Hotel, Allen Street.

​Here’s also a New York Times video clip from a 1959 black and white film about a Giant Gila Monster terrorizing a small Texas Town.


Screen Shot 2018-03-17 at 5.58.13 PM

Here’s another video of a man actually catching a Gila Monster with his bare hands:



Men are from Mars, women are from Venus?

The title of this 1992 bestseller by John Gray might be a bit misleading.

Take a good look at these two images, the header photo and this panorama shot:

Screen Shot 2018-03-16 at 6.54.19 PM copy

Where do you suppose these shots were taken?

My first guess would have been somewhere in the Arizona desert. I should know. Arizona is my home state.

Well, think again. These amazing shots were taken more than 140 million miles away from Arizona by the NASA spacecraft Curiosity rover. These are the foothills of Mount Sharp in Gale Crater on Mars.

So it turns out that men may be actually from Arizona, not Mars, if John Gray’s title were taken literally. Which is a lot closer to Venus than is Mars. 🙂

Curiosity has also confirmed that Gale Crater used to contain a lake or series of lakes a few billion years ago, and fast-moving streams once emptied into the lake through the crater rim.

The above panorama was first posted by Thomas Appéré, who is an Associate Scientist at IPAG (l’Institut de Planétologie et d’ Astrophysique de Grenoble) in Grenoble, France. The rover is still making its way closer to these foothills at the base of the much taller mountain.

The mesas and the canyons are very reminiscent of the scenery in the American Southwest. No wonder Mars has been know for centuries as the Red Planet, just like parts of Arizona (Sedona) are famous as the Red Rock Country.


But that’s where the similarities between Arizona and Mars stop. The average temperature on Mars is −55 °C (218 K; −67 °F). The average temperature in Arizona desert (Phoenix) is 90°F (32°C), with the three summer months averaging 106°F (41°C).

You’ve seen that on average, Mars is 140 million miles away from us. But since both the Earth and Mars have elliptic orbits, they can be as much as 250 million miles (401 million km) apart.

The Martian atmosphere is composed mainly of carbon dioxide and has a mean surface pressure of about 600 pascals (Pa), much lower than the Earth’s 101,000 Pa. One effect of this is that Mars’ atmosphere can react much more quickly to a given energy input than that of Earth’s atmosphere. As a consequence, Mars is subject to strong thermal tides produced by solar heating and cooling.

The Martian year lasts 687 days, roughly 2 Earth years. As on Earth, Mars’ obliquity dominates the seasons but, because of the large eccentricity, winters in the southern hemisphere are long and cold while those in the North are short and warm.

Mars is also much smaller than the Earth. Its radius is the equivalent of roughly 0.53 Earths. However, it’s mass is just 10.7% that of Earth’s.

That’s because Mars formed in a region of the solar system which was relatively depleted of planet-forming material (like those Venus or Earth). The Grand Tack theory holds that Jupiter and Saturn migrated toward the sun shortly after they formed, then headed back out toward the outer solar system once again. These movements would have swept lots of material up from Mars’ neck of the cosmic woods or scattered it away.

Not very neighborly of Jupiter and Saturn, is it? The two biggest planets in our solar system behaved like big bullies, according to this scientific theory.

For more, see… http://earthsky.org/space/images-curiosity-mars-mt-sharp-thomas-appere-mar-2018



Very informative seminar on a hot topic in unconventional healing

Elizabeth and I attended a very informative seminar last night at the Copperwynd Resort in Fountain Hills, Arizona on a controversial subject: Are stem cell treatments a magical cure or a hoax?

The presenter was a representative of Stem Cell Centers . Which means that, of course, he had a biased view in favor of these procedures which are still relatively new in the US.

(Stem cell treatments had been going on in Europe and elsewhere for more than 20 years before this research was allowed in our country – such is the power of the pharma-medical coalition’s quasi monopoly on healing. Which is the reason most of these treatments are still not FDA-approved).

But when an objective person removes all the fluff and marketing enthusiasm from last night’s presentation, what remains is still a myriad of fascinating facts. For someone with severe disabilities in joints, for example (knees, shoulders, hips) – there is ample testimonial evidence that stem cells have done what the medical profession has been unable to do – virtually eliminate pain and regenerate growth of healthy tissues.

There are many other ailments and illnesses in which the Stem Cell Centers have achieved amazing results — too many for me to enumerate here. But the facts whicj were presented were sufficiently convincing for Elizabeth and me to give stem cell injections a shot (pun intended). 🙂 We have set up a consultation and an exam to determine if and how stem cell treatment would for us.

Meanwhile, there is at least one definite benefit that we have already derived from this seminar. We discovered this wonderful Copperwynd Resort on the north side of McDowell Mountains in Fountain Hills.

Here’s a panorama shot I took from the conference room of the town of Fountain Hills and the Four Peaks and other mountains to the east.



There are, of course, plenty of detractors who attack the stem cell treatments about as zealously as its proponents bash the pharma and medical governing bodies. Like the Federal Drug Administration (FDA), for example. The latter have much to lose from the explosion of stem cell clinics across the country (over 570 by the latest count).

Take knee replacements, for example. Such a surgery can cost between $40,000 and $70,000, according to last night’s presentation. A recent study found more than 3 million Medicare patients, aged 65 and older, who got artificial knees from 1991 through 2010.

That’s a lot of money for medical practitioners, hospitals, pharmaceuticals and health insurance companies and a lot of pain and suffering for the patients. Alas, almost 10 percent of the operations were redos – replacing worn-out artificial joints (see Almost 10 percent of the operations were redos – replacing worn-out artificial joints.)

Yet despite such horrific results of conventional medical procedures, the FDA and others in the medical profession keep trying to cast doubts about the effectiveness of stem cell treatments. Check out these articles, for example.

FDA Warns About Stem Cell Therapies

Some clinics also may falsely advertise that FDA review and approval of the stem cell therapy … One patient became blind due to an injection of stem …


This is another interesting article – from Sep 2016 – on CNN:

FDA hearing: How should stem cell clinics be regulated? – CNN

Here’s a look at which stemcell-based … President Barack Obama signed an … That letter was sent to the Irvine Stem Cell Treatment Center in December.

And this one:

Stem Cells for Knees: Promising Treatment or Hoax?

Treatment for knee arthritis is especially popular. It’s one type of osteoarthritis, which afflicts 30 million Americans. Fees vary, but $2,000 per treatment for knee arthritis is about average. Insurance companies usually deny coverage, although in rare cases they may cover it when done along with another, established procedure.

But that did not stop people from turning to the Stem Cell Centers for help. Here are just the first dozen of so such establishments in Arizona that a web search “stem cell centers arizona” has yielded:

Stem Cell Treatment Specialist – Amniotic, Adipose, PRP, & More |stemcell-phoenix.com AD

Treat Pain, Tissue Damage, COPD With Advanced Stem Cell Therapies. Scottsdale AZ


Stem Cell Treatment | Arizona | Stem Cell Rejuvenation Center

Led by Dr. Timothy Peace, we have been performing stem cell therapy for over 10 years. All treatment and procedures done on site at our clinic in Phoenix, Ariz


Phoenix Stem Cell Treatment Center

phoenix stem cell treatment center • 20950 n tatum blvd. suite 150, phoenix, az 85050 • 480-513-3376.


Arizona : Stem Cell Treatments

Arizona Stem Cell Treatment Center Team. 1241 N. Wilmot | Tucson, AZ 85748 | (520) … Scottsdale Stem Cell Center . 2255 North Scottsdale Road | Scottsdale, AZ 85257


About Stem Cell Therapy in Scottsdale, Phoenix, AZ

About Stem Cell Therapy. The Scottsdale Stem Cell Treatment Center provides stem cell therapy for residents of Scottsdale, Phoenix and the surrounding Arizona …


Home – American Stem Cell Therapy Advanced Treatments

American Stem Cell Therapy provides stem cell treatment at a top of the line US facility for chronic pain, brain disorders, and anti-aging.


Contact – Phoenix Stem Cell Treatment Center

Phoenix Stem Cell Treatment Center contact us information. Call 480 513-3376. Stem cellresearch, stem cell therapy, stem cell doctors in Arizona.


Stem Cell Transplant – Arizona Oncology

Stem Cell Transplant. Arizona … Patients will be seen in consultation at the Virginia G. Piper Cancer Center and undergo Stem Cell … The stem cells that …


Phoenix Stem Cell Therapy, Stem Cell Clinic Arizona

R3 Stem Cell offers stem cell and PRP therapy with several Board Certified providers in Phoenix, Scottsdale, Mesa, Chandler, Gilbert, Glendale and more.


Find a stem cell transplant provider in Phoenix, AZ – CTCA

Meet the stem cell transplant providers offering cancer treatment at CTCA at WRMC in Phoenix, AZ. Read more about our stem cell transplant program.



Here’s “a little light reading” for this Sunday’s “service at the universe church”

It’s potentially one of the most exciting astronomical discoveries of the decade: First stars formed only 180 million years after the Big Bang

A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialized radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert.

Details of the detection are revealed in a paper published February 28, 2018, in Nature, and tell us these stars formed only 180 million years after the Big Bang.

It’s potentially one of the most exciting astronomical discoveries of the decade. A second Nature paper, also published February 28, links the finding to possibly the first detected evidence that dark matter, thought to make up much of the universe, might interact with ordinary atoms.

Tuning in to the signal

This discovery was made by a small radio antenna operating in the band of 50-100 Mhz, which overlaps some well known FM radio stations (which is why the telescope is located in the remote Western Australian desert).

What has been detected is the absorption of light by neutral atomic hydrogen gas, which filled the early universe after it cooled down from the hot plasma of the Big Bang.

At this time (180 million years after the Big Bang) the early universe was expanding, but the densest regions of the universe were collapsing under gravity to make the first stars.

The formation of the first stars had a dramatic effect on the rest of the universe. Ultraviolet radiation from them changed the electron spin in the hydrogen atoms, causing it to absorb the background radio emission of the universe at a natural resonant frequency of 1,420 MHz, casting a shadow so to speak.

Now, 13 billion years later, that shadow would be expected at a much lower frequency because the universe has expanded nearly 18-fold in that time.

For more, read…




If there were no leap years, eventually February would become a summer month in the Northern Hemisphere

Sorry, there will be no leap day this year. This is it for 2018. Feb 28 is the last day of the month. The next one is 2020!

Why do we need leap years and leap days?

Blame Earth’s orbit around the sun, which takes approximately 365.25 days. It’s that last fraction – 0.25 – that creates the need for a leap year every four years.

During non-leap years aka common years – like 2018 – the calendar doesn’t take into account the extra quarter of a day actually required by Earth to complete a single orbit around the sun. In essence, the calendar year, which is a human artifact, is faster than the actual solar year, or year as defined by our planet’s motion through space.

Over time and without correction, the calendar year would drift away from the solar year and the drift would add up quickly.

For example, without correction the calendar year would be off by about one day after four years. It’d be off by about 25 days after 100 years. You can see that, if even more time were to pass without the leap year as a calendar correction, eventually February would be a summer month in the Northern Hemisphere.

During leap years, a leap day is added to the calendar to slow down and synchronize the calendar year with the seasons. Leap days were first added to the Julian Calendar in 46 B.C. by Julius Caesar at the advice of Sosigenes, an Alexandrian astronomer.


In 1582, Pope Gregory XIII revised the Julian calendar by creating the Gregorian calendar with the assistance of Christopher Clavius, a German mathematician and astronomer.


The Gregorian calendar further stated that leap days should not be added in years ending in “00” unless that year is also divisible by 400. This additional correction was added to stabilize the calendar over a period of thousands of years and was necessary because solar years are actually slightly less than 365.25 days. In fact, a solar year occurs over a period of 365.2422 days.

Hence, according to the rules set forth in the Gregorian calendar leap years have occurred or will occur during the following years:

1600 1604 1608 1612 1616 1620 1624 1628 1632 1636 1640 1644 1648 1652 1656 1660 1664 1668 1672 1676 1680 1684 1688 1692 1696 1704 1708 1712 1716 1720 1724 1728 1732 1736 1740 1744 1748 1752 1756 1760 1764 1768 1772 1776 1780 1784 1788 1792 1796 1804 1808 1812 1816 1820 1824 1828 1832 1836 1840 1844 1848 1852 1856 1860 1864 1868 1872 1876 1880 1884 1888 1892 1896 1904 1908 1912 1916 1920 1924 1928 1932 1936 1940 1944 1948 1952 1956 1960 1964 1968 1972 1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008 2012 2016 2020 2024 2028 2032 2036 2040 2044 2048 2052 2056 2060 2064 2068 2072 2076 2080 2084 2088 2092 2096 2104 2108 2112 2116 2120 2124 2128 2132 2136 2140 2144 2148 2152.

Notice that 2000 was a leap year because it is divisible by 400, but that 1900 was not a leap year.

Since 1582, the Gregorian calendar has been gradually adopted as a “civil” international standard for many countries around the world.

Bottom line: 2018 isn’t a leap year, because it isn’t evenly divisible by 4. The next leap day will be added to the calendar on February 29, 2020.

For more, see… https://goo.gl/Rqnzfj



Here’s “a little light reading” for this Sunday’s “service at the universe church.”

Question: Can one survive a journey into a black hole?

Answer: Conventional scientific wisdom says no. But now a UC Berkeley mathematician says you could survive certain types of black holes. Except that your past would be obliterated and you’d have an infinite number of possible futures.

Is your head spinning already? Wait. This is just a start. When you start watching the black hole simulation video, you’d better be sitting down.

What is a black hole?

But first, what is a black hole? (Other than the bottomless pit of my two daughters’ college-era traveling duffel bags; that’s what I used to call them). 🙂

Black holes are bizarre objects that get their name from the fact that nothing can escape their gravity, not even light. If you venture too close and cross the so-called event horizon, you’ll never escape. They are what’s left the core of exploding start or supernovas.

For small black holes, you’d never survive such a close approach anyway. The tidal forces close to the event horizon are enough to spaghettify anything: that is, stretch it until it’s a string of atoms.

To understand how this works, check out his extraordinary video made by Andrew Hamilton of the University of Colorado. It simulates what would happen if you come too close to a black hole.

Remember, this is SCIENCE, not science fiction. Black holes like this are as real as your right thumb.

“This is definitely the most scary video I’ve ever seen,” wrote one view after watching this video.

Back to our UC Berkeley mathematician, postdoctoral fellow Peter Hintz…

New black hole theory

In the real world, your past uniquely determines your future. If a physicist knows how the universe starts out, she can calculate its future for all time and all space.

But a UC Berkeley mathematician has found some types of black holes in which this law breaks down. If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures.

Such claims have been made in the past, and physicists have invoked strong cosmic censorship to explain it away. That is, something catastrophic – typically a horrible death – would prevent observers from actually entering a region of spacetime where their future was not uniquely determined. This principle, first proposed 40 years ago by physicist Roger Penrose, keeps sacrosanct an idea – determinism [cause and effect] – key to any physical theory.

That is, given the past and present, the physical laws of the universe do not allow more than one possible future.

But, says UC Berkeley postdoctoral fellow Peter Hintz, mathematical calculations show that for some specific types of black holes in a universe like ours, which is expanding at an accelerating rate, it is possible to survive the passage from a deterministic world into a non-deterministic black hole.

What life would be like in a space where the future was unpredictable is unclear. But the finding does not mean that Einstein’s equations of general relativity, which so far perfectly describe the evolution of the cosmos, are wrong, said Hintz. He said:

No physicist is going to travel into a black hole and measure it. This is a math question. But from that point of view, this makes Einstein’s equations mathematically more interesting. This is a question one can really only study mathematically, but it has physical, almost philosophical implications, which makes it very cool.

Hintz and his colleagues published a paper describing these unusual black holes in January 2018 in the journal Physical Review Letters.

For more, see… https://goo.gl/xGg6id

What Causes a Supernova? Here’s NASA’s answer…

A supernova is an exploding star. This  happens where there is a change in the core, or center, of a star. A change can occur in two different ways, with both resulting in a supernova.

The first type of supernova happens in binary star systems. Binary stars are two stars that orbit the same point. One of the stars, a carbon-oxygen white dwarf, steals matter from its companion star. Eventually, the white dwarf accumulates too much matter. Having too much matter causes the star to explode, resulting in a supernova.

ALTZAR: Sirius B is an example of on such “white dwarf.”

The second type of supernova occurs at the end of a single star’s lifetime. As the star runs out of nuclear fuel, some of its mass flows into its core. Eventually, the core is so heavy that it cannot withstand its own gravitational force. The core collapses, which results in the giant explosion of a supernova.

Can that happen in our solar system?

No, says NASA. The sun is a single star, but it does not have enough mass to become a supernova.

For more, see… https://goo.gl/yp48FB


The brightest star visible from any part of Earth is Sirius in the constellation Canis Major the Greater Dog. Sirius is sometimes called the Dog Star. Most people in the Northern Hemisphere notice Sirius in the southeast – south – or southwest on evenings from winter to mid-spring. February evenings are a grand time to see it. It’s also fun to spot Sirius as it ascends in the east before dawn on late summer mornings.

As seen from around the world, Sirius rises in mid-evening in December. By mid-April, Sirius is setting in the southwest in mid-evening.

Sirius is always easy to find. It’s the sky’s brightest star! Plus, anyone familiar with the constellation Orion can simply draw a line through Orion’s Belt to find this star. Sirius is roughly eight times as far from the Belt as the Belt is wide.

Sirius is well known as the Dog Star, because it’s the chief star in the constellation Canis Major, the Big Dog. Have you ever heard anyone speak of the dog days of summer? Sirius is behind the sun as seen from Earth in Northern Hemisphere summer. In late summer, it appears in the east before sunrise – near the sun in our sky. The early stargazers might have imagined the double-whammy of Sirius and the sun caused the hot weather, or dog days.

And with good reason. Because Sirius much hotter star than our sun. Its surface temperature is about 17,000 degrees Fahrenheit in contrast to our sun’s 10,000 degrees F. With slightly more than twice the mass of the sun and just less than twice its diameter, Sirius puts out 26 times as much energy. It’s a main-sequence star, meaning it produces most of its energy by converting hydrogen into helium through nuclear fusion.

Although white to blue white in color, Sirius might be called a rainbow star, as it often flickers with many colors.

In ancient Egypt, the name Sirius signified its nature as scorching or sparkling. The star was associated with the Egyptian gods Osiris, Sopdet and other gods. Ancient Egyptians noted that Sirius rose just before the sun each year immediately prior to the annual flooding of the Nile River. Although the floods could bring destruction, they also brought new soil and new life. Osiris was an Egyptian god of life, death, fertility and rebirth of plant life along the Nile. Sopdet – who might have an even closer association with the star Sirius – began as an agricultural deity in Egypt, also closely associated with the Nile. The Egyptian new year was celebrated with a festival known as The Coming of Sopdet.


Did you know that Sirius is actually not a single star? It is a binary star system consisting of two white stars orbiting each other with a separation of about 20 AU (roughly the distance between the Sun and Uranus). The age of the system has been estimated at around 230 million years.

Its companion, Sirius B, is a star that has already evolved off the main sequence and become a white dwarf. Currently 10,000 times less luminous in the visual spectrum, Sirius B was once the more massive of the two.

Sirius B is one of the more massive white dwarfs known. This mass is packed into a volume roughly equal to the Earth’s. In other words, it is tiny in comparison to Sirius A which is more the double the size of our sun.

For more, see… Earth & Sky 


For Elizabeth and me, the Sirius binary starts also have a special personal significance. Sirius. Sirius A is Elizabeth’s home star. Sirius B is mine. Many millions of years ago, I was a multiverse portal keeper on Sirius B.

That was one of the many fascinating things I learned on my astral birthday and initiation nearly 9 years ago – on Feb 25, 2009.

Altzar astral birthdat 2-25-09

For more on that, check out…

Continuing Revelations: http://altzar.org/Spiritual/Peru_Notes_10.html (2/29/2010)

ALTZAR Astral Birthday: http://altzar.org/Spiritual/Altzar_Rebirth.pdf (2/25/2009)

ALTZAR Mantras: http://altzar.org/Spiritual/ALTZAR_Mantras_Poem.pdf (2/25/2009)



I am one known as Altzar,
The Rainbow Giver
From the Dogon star.
I am a child of the Original One,
I am a ray of the Original Sun,
I am Wholeness,
I am Love,
I am Altzar.



About 81 million Americans still believe the Sun revolves around the Earth!

Today, Feb 19, 2018, is President’s Day in the United States, a federal holiday. Which president’s birthday is today?

Nobody’s. At least no significant president. George Washington’s birthday, which inspired this holiday, was Feb 22.

But today is a birthday of someone far more significant in the history of this planet than all presidents, kings and queens put together.  This person’s life’s work changed not just history but the way we see ourselves within the universe. And his view prevailed to this day.

Who might that have been?

It was Nicolaus Copernicus who was born on this day in 1473 in Turin, Poland. Copernicus was not just an outstanding mathematician and astronomer. He was an extremely brave man. Because he dared challenge the Weltanschauung (world view) which had existed since Aristotle’s work in the 4th century BC.

Prior to Copernicus, everybody on this planet, including all major powers that be around the world, believed that the Earth is the center of the universe and that the Sun revolved around us. Which was Aristotle’s view.

The publication of Copernicus’ book – De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres) – just before his death in 1543, changed all that and set the stage for all of modern astronomy (for more, see… https://goo.gl/NKQzxD).

Today, people speak of his work as the Copernican Revolution.

Well, that revolution seems to have failed where the American Revolution succeeded. A full quarter of Americans still believe the Earth is the center of the universe.

You think I am kidding? Tragically, I am not.

In 2012, a survey of 2,200 people by the National Science Foundation posed this question, among others: “Does the Earth go around the Sun, or does the Sun go around the Earth?”

A quarter of Americans chose the latter. That’s about 81 million people, according to the population census.

(For more, see – A 2012 survey Quarter of Americans Convinced Sun Revolves Around Earth, Survey Finds – ABC News – http://abcn.ws/M5gtj3).

Such ignorance is yet another proof of success of New World Order’s or Deep State’s “Dumbing Down of America,” the title of my 1997 Washington Times column.

Back to Copernicus, the opposition to his view was fierce, especially by the Inquisition of the Catholic church, which would burn people at the stake for espousing such “heretical” views.

But that did not stop other brave men from following Copernicus and building on the Polish mathematician’s groundwork. One of them was the Italian mathematician, philosopher and astronomer of the 15th century, Galileo Galilei.

In 1633, Galileo was brought before the Roman Inquisition, a judicial system established by the papacy in 1542 to regulate church doctrine (see GALILEO ARRIVES IN ROME TO FACE CHARGES OF HERESY).

Today, Galileo and Copernicus are recognized for making important contributions to the study of motion and astronomy. Their work influenced later scientists such as the English mathematician and physicist Sir Isaac Newton, who developed the law of universal gravitation.

It was not until 1992, however, hat the Vatican formally acknowledged its mistake in condemning Galileo (and by implication Copernicus).

So it took the Catholic church 358 years (!) to acknowledge its error. Such is the arrogance and blindness of power. And then we wonder why a quarter of Americans (81 million people!) are still living in the Dark Ages?

Because today’s powers that be, like the Vatican 500 years ago, know that ignorant dunderheads are easier to rule and manipulate than an enlightened population.